Early to mid 20th century.
- n. 1 – Tuareg. Bronze, grams 110,8. Outer diameter cm. 7,0; inner diameter cm. 5,2.
- n. 2 – Tuareg. Brass, grams 141,7. Outer diameter cm. 7,0; inner diameter cm. 5,0.
- n. 3 – Ashanti. Bronze, grams 111,4. Outer diameter cm. 6,5; inner diameter cm. 4,5.
- n. 4 – Fulani-Peul. Bronze, grams 111,4. Outer diameter cm. 6,5; inner diameter cm. 4,5.
The Djerma live in the arid lands of the Sahel. Many live in the Niger River valley and exploit the river for irrigation. They grow millet, sorghum, rice, corn (maize), and tobacco and raise cotton and peanuts (groundnuts) as cash crops. Horses and especially cattle are an important source of wealth for the Djerma, and there has long been a trade pattern whereby cattle are driven south for sale in coastal countries. Milk is an important element of the daily diet. Horses are kept by important persons, and in the past the Djerma were skilled cavalrymen.